Binospec is a multi-object wide field optical spectrograph for the
6.5-m MMT telescope, with two rectangular 8×15 arcmin fields of view,
each with its own spectrograph. It is run in a queue-observed mode.
For basic properties of Binospec see the Binospec information page.
Binospec has a wide field of view and is very efficient across most of
the optical window (roughly 3600-9200 A). It produces data with a
clean reduction free of most artifacts and sky subtraction problems. A
data delivery system and pipeline give quick access to raw data, and
data can be reduced by users or by SAO staff. There is a tool for
measuring galaxy redshifts in reduced data. What this adds up to is
that Binospec is good at getting sensitive spectra of largish numbers
of objects in fields of order 15 arcmin.
Binospec has acquisition and calibration overheads that add up to
nominally 30 minutes per spectroscopic target (often a bit less in
practice). This makes it less efficient at acquiring spectra of large
numbers of single bright objects needing eg 10-15 minute exposures, or
at survey tiling fields of a degree scale or more.
Overheads and observing block length
The queue catalog will assign each observing block a fiducial
overhead, currently set at 30 min for spectroscopy (either longslit or
slit mask) and 10 min for imaging. This includes target acquisition,
instrument configuration, calibration exposures, and CCD readout
times. The actual overhead is often a little shorter for spectroscopy
(like 25 min) and we only charge programs the actual overhead. Some of
the overhead is due to night time calibrations (flats, arc lamp) that
take several minutes. Staff are exploring taking some calibrations
during the day to save time, but this will only knock off ~10 minutes
at most and could affect reduction quality. What this means is that
taking a lot of spectra of objects that only need 10-15 minute
exposures is not an efficient use of Binospec time.
Additionally, the catalog software breaks requested observations into
observing blocks of at most 2 hours exposure time, for scheduling
practicality. This means that for example, if you assign a lot of
targets each 2.5 hours of exposure time, your program will look
inefficient. You could, for example, give some of them 2 hours and
some of them 3 hours, and lose less to overhead. In practice, if we
do manage to integrate for over 2 hours consecutively on a target,
your program would only be charged for one acquisition.
Guide and offset stars
You must supply accurate coordinates that are in the Gaia DR2
reference frame (SDSS is good enough). Binospec’s guide cameras can
then acquire guide stars with Gaia positions and set your target
directly onto the slit. There is not currently a slit with a mirrored
surface, so it’s not possible or necessary to use a slit viewing
camera to set the pointing on an offset star. Just supply good
Common grating setups
The default setup for large wavelength coverage is the 270 lpmm
grating and central wavelength 6500 A. If you need higher resolution,
the 1000 lpmm grating is better at the bluest wavelengths < 5000 A,
and the 600 lpmm grating is better at redder wavelengths. The central
wavelengths are continuously tunable but some values are not allowed,
see the table on the Binospec info page.
The 1.0 arcsec wide slit is always in the instrument. You should use
this unless you have a strong reason not to. It is well matched to the
typical seeing, and any other longslit has to be installed, which
means competing for space with all the slitmasks in a given queue (ie
your program could only be observed on nights when your longslit is
Spectroscopic exposure lengths
We strongly recommend a maximum of 20 minutes per single exposure due
to build up of cosmic rays. We also recommend to get at least 3
exposures per target to remove cosmic rays; the pipeline will run more
easily and data will be better.
Exposures shorter than 60 sec or so are inefficient due to readout and
only recommended for bright objects like standard stars. If you are
doing a long time series like a planetary transit, 120 sec has been
used in the past.
Magnitude range for targets
If you put too-bright objects on a slitmask along with faint objects,
they can bleed into neighboring slits and/or cause problems in the
pipeline reduction. For example, if you are trying to take spectra of
faint stars or galaxies at magnitude 22-24 or fainter, you should also
cut your catalog to remove stars/galaxies at about mag 16 or brighter.
Blue blocking filters
Binospec has two spectroscopic blocking filters, LP3500 and LP3800.
These are long-pass, blocking blue light. They have about 98-99%
throughput longward of 3500 A and 3800 A respectively. They prevent
2nd order blue light from contaminating the 1st order spectrum, which
can be a problem especially for intrinsically blue objects.
Generally, you should use LP3800 unless you are observing the
3500-3800 A range. Binospec does have some throughput blueward of
3800 A, so you can reach that region by using LP3500.
Binospec is behind an ADC (atmospheric dispersion compensator), so you
don’t need to observe at the parallactic angle, although the observers
will sometimes set the longslit at an angle that tracks through
Same mask with different gratings or central wavelengths
You can use the same multislit mask with two different wavelength
tunings. This is a common way to get large wavelength coverage at
moderately high resolution with the 600 line grating, for example (of
course it takes twice as much time, but you also resolve the sky
better). It’s also possible to observe the same mask with two
gratings, eg the 1000 and 600 lpmm gratings.
Using a previously designed mask
Currently we are storing all the previously designed masks, so if you
want to observe a mask from a previous semester, that’s possible. The
queue catalog will let you select one of your previous masks. You
should also be able to find masks designed by one of your Co-Is. If
you have any problems finding an existing mask, contact your MMT
Adding spectrophotometric standards to your catalog
If you need standards for flux calibration or telluric correction, put
a note in the comments field of your object. If you’re especially
concerned about tellurics you may want to note that so we know to take
the standard reasonably close. You can add standard stars to your
catalog. This is especially helpful if you are using a
grating/wavelength combination different from the typical G270/6500 A.
Add your standard stars as priority 3 so the queue scheduler doesn’t
try to schedule them as normal observations. You must update
standard star coordinates to the current epoch using Gaia. Many
standard stars are white dwarfs with high proper motions, and many
popular lists of standards are horribly out of date. The best way to add
standards to your catalog is to update their RA/Dec coordinates to the current
epoch (eg 2021.8), enter this RA/Dec and zero for the proper motions, and set
the epoch/equinox field to “2000” (because the MMT mount code will interpret
this as equinox J2000). For more information see the MMT spectro standards page.
Spectrophotometric standards for current or past observations
We frequently take standard stars during a run as general observatory
calibrations. These are most commonly in the G270/6500 setting but
others can be done. These observations are taken in an observatory
(director’s time) catalog, not charged to an individual program. So
they don’t appear in your catalog, but we can give individual PIs
access to the data. If you need standard star data, contact Ben Weiner
and specify the grating, central wavelength, and date. We don’t have
data in all settings from all runs but the throughput is generally
It’s possible to build up an integral-field-like spatially resolved
spectrum by taking a series of exposures stepping the longslit (or
slitmask) in the perpendicular to slit direction. This step is
controlled by the observer in instrument X-Y coordinates, so you need to
specify the step size across the slit, not in compass directions. For
example, say “use PA=45 and step by 2 arcsec perpendicular to the
slit = instrument X-direction, doing 5 positions at -4, -2, 0, +2, +4 arcsec.”
Don’t say “use PA=45 and do 5 positions stepping by 2.8 arcsec north,”
because the observers have to set the position in the instrument frame,
not the sky frame.
Afternoon “sky” flats for spectroscopy
Sky flats aren’t part of the normal Binospec reduction
process. However, some programs that need very good knowledge of the
instrumental profile can benefit from afternoon spectroscopic flats
using the solar spectrum. These are used to measure the instrumental
profile by comparison with model spectra. You probably don’t need
these unless you are measuring velocity dispersions or doing precision
radial velocity work. They are time-consuming to take and require
coordination between TO and queue observer, so please contact your MMT
instrument scientist if you think you might need them.
Avoiding rotator limits for slitmasks
The instrument rotator has limits near +180/-180 degrees. These can
prevent observing slitmasks at certain PAs and certain times. In
practice, the limits mean that to avoid hitting the limit at transit,
for masks that are north of the MMT (Dec > +33), you should avoid
designing masks with position angles near 0, and for masks south of
the MMT (Dec < +33), you should avoid PAs near +180 or -180.
Imaging exposure lengths
Individual direct imaging exposures should be kept pretty short,
especially if you are working in a field with a lot of stars (lower
Galactic latitude) or near the peak of detector sensitivity (r or i
band). If so, direct imaging exposures should be no more than 60
seconds, or you will saturate a lot of stars. Probably in all fields
and filters, imaging exposures should be less than about 240-300
seconds. Saturated stars cause persistence problems that can damage
data on faint targets taken after your field.
Flatfields for imaging are taken in the afternoon with an internal
lamp, and we have to use one of the arc comparison lamps because the
spectroscopic continuum lamp is too bright. This means that imaging
flatfields will show up in your raw data package with image type
‘comp’. Flatfields can be shared between targets, so you might get a
notification about data being available for a target, even though only
the afternoon flats have been taken so far.
It’s not currently possible to make really large dithers while imaging
because the guide stars would go off the subarray (region of interest)
of the guide cameras. The detectors are pretty clean so modest
dithers should take care of most detector artifacts.
Raw and reduced data
Raw data will typically show up in your catalog the next morning,
copied over around 9 am MST. These include *.fits and *proc.fits files
– the proc files have been overscan and bias subtracted and trimmed.
Spectroscopic data can be reduced by the Binospec IDL pipeline. SAO
staff will reduce the data when time is available. The data package
also includes a file with an auto-generated reduction script, so you
can download the pipeline and try reducing the raw data
yourself. Several of our users have reduced the longslit data with the
conventional IRAF cookbook workflow (Massey et al) that they’ve used
for other longslit instruments.
The Binospec pipeline doesn’t reduce imaging data, so you should
download the raw *proc.fits data, and reduce those with IRAF, ccdproc,
or any other typical method for reducing imaging. Note that the
imaging internal flatfields will show in your catalog as type “comp”
and sometimes are filed under a different object in your catalog than
the nighttime science data.
How do I look at the data?
The reduced data files include a 2-D FITS image that has 1-d spectra,
one per row; and a FITS file with many extensions, each the 2-d
spectrum of one slit. See a description at the Binospec pipeline repository wiki.
To inspect spectra and fit redshifts, you can try the Specpro software in the
version adapted for Binospec, see the Using Specpro to inspect
Binospec data page.
Where’s my longslit object in the data?
The longslit masks have a slit on each of Side A and Side B, and the
data are stored in extensions 1 and 2 of a fits file. Your object is
in one side, and the other slit is on some random part of sky about 10
arcmin away. Typically longslit targets are observed on side B. So if
you don’t see the object’s trace, look in the second extension of the
The MMT can track non-sidereal targets that have a JPL Horizons
ephemeris. We have tested acquiring and track a solar system object
for imaging by tracking with the MMT and offsetting the telescope to
put the object into one of the two Binospec imaging fields of view.
We recommend that you contact MMT staff so we can set up communication
between PI, instrument scientist and queue observers before such an
Taking spectra of a non-sidereal target will be more involved because
acquiring it onto the slit will not use the RA/Dec and Gaia stars. If
you plan to do such an observation, please get in touch with MMT staff
so we can coordinate with the Binospec instrument team.
If you have a question not covered here or on the Binospec information page, please
contact the instrument scientist, Ben Weiner, at bjw @ mmto.org.